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Rheumatoid Arthritis: Early Signs And Symptoms.

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1 in 100 people today may be suffering from RA in the community, according to senior rheumatologist Dr Anand Malaviya. Read here to know about this condition which is commonly known for causing pain and stiffness in joints.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the joints. The condition begins insidiously with nonspecific aches and pains in the musculoskeletal system of the body that come-and-go. The symptoms progress over a period of time, within weeks or even some months when actual joint swellings become visible along with increasing stiffness and pains.

According to  , Senior Rheumatologist, “approximately 1 in 100 people may be suffering from RA in the community. The condition usually occurs in people between 20 years to 60 years of age.”

He says, “RA affects small and large joints in the arms and the legs in a symmetrical distribution (on both sides of the body).This is in contrast to the other very common joint disease (of elderly persons) called osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis usually begins at a later age and most commonly affects one knee and then the other knee over time. RA is 5 times more common in women than men.”



The exact cause of RA is not known. However, it is well understood that the synovial tissue (the inner lining) of the joints become inflamed due to an autoimmune response (the immune system of the body becomes imbalanced and starts self-attack).

The cause of the autoimmune response is multifactorial including certain genetic risk factors and several environmental factors including smoking, poor oro-dental hygiene.

There are several additional risk factors that enhance the possibility of a poor treatment outcome in RA. These include obesity, lack of regular exercise and imbalanced diet. Eating plenty of fruits, green vegetables, and a balanced high-fibre diet helps in the control of RA.

Rheumatoid arthritis affects the lining of your joints, tissues surrounding the joints, as well as connective tissues at other places in the body.

Drinking baking soda daily may help reduce the destructive inflammation of autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, say scientists

The main symptoms of RA are morning stiffness (stiffness after a period of rest that may take 30 minutes to an hour before improving), pain and swelling in the small joints of the hands-fingers. But, almost all the other small and large joints in the body may get affected including wrists, elbows, shoulders, the knees, the ankles and the joints in the feet, in a symmetrical distribution.

However, spine involvement does not occur in RA (except in the upper neck) as also the hip involvement that is uncommon. Symptoms of RA are characterised by persistence (persists beyond 6 weeks), therefore, it is characterised as a form of chronic inflammatory arthritis).

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“A person suffering from RA is likely to wake up with stiff joints in the morning. They experience severe pain in different joints of the body like joints of hands, wrists, elbows, foot and ankle joints. They also experience visible swelling in these joints”, says Dr Malaviya. “People with RA experience fatigue, tiredness, unexpected weight loss, swelling in joints of hands, wrists and elbows. These people find it difficult to perform day-to-day activities”, he added.

RA can lead to the joints becoming swollen and tender with restricted movement especially small joints and joints of upper extremities. One may also have fatigue, flu-like symptoms, loss of appetite and lack of sleep, weight loss etc. It is important to know that symptoms of RA are likely to fluctuate in severity over time.

Occasionally, the disease may ‘flare-up’ (a period during which inflammation and other symptoms increase and become more severe without any obvious cause). The ‘flare’may last for some days, or even months, unless treated appropriately.

A person suffering from RA is likely to wake up with stiff joints in the morning. They experience severe pain in different joints of the body like joints of hands, wrists, elbows, foot and ankle joints. They also experience visible swelling in these joints”

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Here’s how rheumatoid arthritis affects different organs

1. It causes gritty sensation, pain and dryness in eyes, may cause some degree of impaired vision and sensitivity to light.

2. Dryness of mouth, infection and gum irritation are also common in patients with RA.

3. ‘Rheumatoid nodules’ (mostly seen in RA patients who smoke) a hard small – to – medium size nodules subcutaneously seen near the olecranon process and the adjacent extensor surface of the forearm. They may also be seen (occasionally) as small hard nodules near the affected small joints in the fingers.

4. Prolonged uncontrolled inflammation in RA may lead to the involvement of the lungs causing difficulty in breathing. Shortness of breath and scarring of lungs are one of the most serious complications of RA that is often seen in those who do not take proper medicines from the beginning of the disease.

5. There are several other complications in patients with RA who have not received appropriate treatment. These include blockage in the arteries of the heart causing premature heart attacks, osteoporosis (brittle bones) causing fractures, skin lesions, reduced haemoglobin, tingling and numbness (neuropathy; entrapment syndrome), and many others.

RA can result in decreased range of motion in the affected joints. Inflammation in joints causes laxity of the supporting ligaments and tendons that causes deformities. With the progression of the disease, joint disabilities increase and the person may not be able to carry out normal routine functions including self-care, house-hold chores, job-related to her/his profession and loss of all the leisure-time activities.

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24 Hours Across Africa

Zimbawe’s doctor goes missing after masterminding strike

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Fearless Zimbabwe’s minister of health has called on the government to address insecurity lapses that has lead to the disappearance Peter Magombeyi, the head of a doctor’s union, who disappeared on Saturday.

Fears are rising over the fate of Zimbabwe medical doctor Dr Peter Magombeyi after he sent a message to say he had been abducted in that country by unknown persons – apparently for demanding a “living wage”.

An AFP report earlier on Sunday quoted the Zimbabwe Hospital Doctor’s Association (ZHDA) as saying Magombeyi had not been heard from since he sent a WhatsApp message on Saturday night saying he had been “kidnapped by three men”.

Zimbabwe doctors, who earn a miserly equivalent of about R3 000 are on strike to press for better wages, equipment and medicines in state hospitals.

The ZHDA has reportedly accused state security forces of abducting the doctor because of his role in organising work stoppages.

This week some doctors said the death of deposed Robert Mugabe, 95, in a Singapore hospital on 6 September was an indication of how bad health services in Zimbabwe

“Dr Magombeyi’s crime is only to ask for a living wage for his profession. This is a reflection of the troubles born out of refusal to implement Political Reforms.”

The Zimbabwe government led by Emmerson Mnangagwa has not publicly commented on the doctor’s disappearance

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24 Hours Across Africa

Turkey: Group calls for immediate action against Femicide

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Emine Dirican, a beautician from Istanbul, tried to be a good wife. But her husband hated that she worked, that she socialized, even that she wanted to leave the house sometimes without him.

She tried to reason with him. He lashed out.

“One time, he tied me — my hands, my legs from the back, like you do to animals,” recalls Dirican, shuddering. “He beat me with a belt and said, ‘You’re going to listen to me, you’re going to obey whatever I say to you.’ “

She left him and moved in with her parents. In January, he showed up, full of remorse and insisting he had changed. She let him in.

In her mother’s kitchen, he grabbed her by the hair, threw her to the floor and pulled out a gun.

“He shot me,” she says. “Then he went back to my mom and he pulled the trigger again, but the gun was stuck. So he hit her head with the back of the gun.”

Her father, who was in another room in the house, heard the gunshots and ran over. Dirican almost bled to death after a bullet ripped through a main artery in one of her legs.

“I was telling my father, ‘Daddy, please, I don’t want to die.’ “

Femicide — killing women because of their gender — is a longstanding issue in Turkey. Nearly 300 women have been killed so far this year, according to the Istanbul-based advocacy group We Will Stop Femicide, which has been tracking gender-related deaths since Turkish authorities stopped doing so in 2009.

Source Npr news

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